Both Cameras above were built by Mauricio Sapata.
There are only two fundamentally different types of Box Cameras: those with an internal focus system like the Afghan Box Camera and those with an external focus system, usually an adaptation of an old bellows camera. Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages. An internal focus camera can be built rather easily in any home with a few simple tools. It merely requires a lens, usually a large format or enlarger lens. An external focus camera requires access to more sophisticated camera equipment like a bellows camera. As the focusing happens on the outside of the camera, the camera body can be smaller. There are of course a variety of adaptations and some cameras have both focusing systems using each interchangeably.
This camera was built by Sébastien Bergeron.
These two cameras were built by Afghan carpenters in Kabul and purchased by Landry Dunand (left) and Aurel de St Andre (right).
The camera on the left was manufactured in Argentina and purchased by Cássia Xavier & Gustavo Falqueiro. The camera on the right is a modern adaptation with external focus and LED light.
A variety of cameras built by Jeffrey Lim.